Towards Development of a 1980’s Greater Hamilton Area Single Detached Residential Housing Archetype: Retrofitting to the Performance Levels of Net Zero Energy Ready

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This research defined attributes of residential housing in the Greater Hamilton Area for the development of an archetype model that would represent a two-storey single detached house to investigate the potential of the existing house achieving Net Zero Energy Ready performance. A calibrated baseline energy model was developed in HOT2000 based on utility bill and field investigation data. The calibrated model had an error value of 14.65% for the coefficient of variation of root mean squared and 4.42% for the normalized mean bias error relating to natural gas consumption and 8.00% and 2.41% respectably for electrical usage. Significant alteration of the existing archetype model wasrequired to accomplish Net Zero Energy Ready performance. This included a complete removal of the exterior building enclosure elements or the interior finishes in order to facilitate sealing of air leakage pathways and the inclusion of additional thermal resistance. To ensure durability was maintained for the highly insulated above grade wall assembly, a hygrothermal analysis was conducted. The analysis concluded, caution should be applied when implementing a double stud wall assembly for an interior retrofit and consideration should be given to the permeability of the exterior insulation when conducting a retrofit from the exterior when a low permeance interior membrane is present. The findings of this research supported the development of the first IV archetype model to represent the Greater Hamilton Area that identified retrofit strategies that can reduce the energy consumption of the existing single detached housing stock, while acknowledging solutions that ensured durability was preserved.
Toronto Metropolitan Department of  Architectural Science Toronto, CA.